Manufacture of ceramic tiles
For several millennia, ceramic tiles have been in great demand for roofing construction. The unique abilities of the material make it suitable for any climatic zone. Large amounts of precipitation, sunlight and low temperatures are not able to destroy the material.
Such a roof can stand for a century without a single crack and chip. Particularly attractive to the client is the fact that there is no need for regular care. Cleaning of the surface occurs due to regular precipitation. All these indicators are achieved due to the unique production technology.
Extraction of raw materials
Clay is used to make shingles. This raw material is formed by weathering of rocks and rocks. The clay is based on a group of rock-forming minerals – feldspars, silicates and kaolinite. Chemical composition – aluminium and silicon oxides.
The presence of these oxides creates a characteristic burgundy color. An important indicator is fat content. It determines the amount of foreign impurities. The most durable are the medium-fat clay products. In order to achieve the required indicator of fat content, the resulting material from the quarry passes the stage of cleaning from impurities.
The presence of various minerals in the composition of the various minerals when combined with water creates the necessary plasticity of the mass, which determines the strength of the manufactured shingles.
Forming and drying tiles
After obtaining the required plastic mass, the solution is shaped. First of all, the clay is compacted with the help of a screw device and comes into line in the form of a long belt. The resulting belt is then cut into small plates according to the shape.
This is how products with rounded and square edges are created. The use of gypsum dies is becoming very popular today. Thus, after the pressing stage, the resulting mass is shaped with a die. The resulting product has an increased moisture content in order to reduce it requires drying.
For this purpose, shingles are placed in a special chamber, where the temperature and humidity are particularly controlled. This procedure helps to avoid further shrinkage, cracks and chips.
It is the final process. It can be divided into such stages:
- Uniform heating of the product – preparation for high temperature treatment.
- Firing – brings the raw material into an amorphous state, destroying its structure.
- Cooling – uniform reduction of shingles temperature.
The most difficult is the second stage, which is carried out in a modular tunnel kiln. To achieve high temperatures, the furnaces are made of steel and the heating itself is done with natural gas. Excellent sealing helps to make the heating process of the obtained products even.
To obtain the necessary color and texture, the finished tile is additionally treated with glaze or engobe. This increases the water resistance and creates a glossy or shiny surface.